Sunflower, the main oilseed crop in Ukraine, takes up large areas of sowing in the Steppe, forest-steppe, and in recent years it has been grown even in Polissya. Culture is demanding to the conditions of mineral nutrition, and therefore it is desirable to maximize the need for mineral fertilizers from autumn.
In fields where the full dose of mineral fertilizers in the fall did not increase, the effectiveness of their local introduction in the spring increases. For sowing, the company ECOORGANIC offers a novelty for the 2019 season - the liquid start fertilizer Phytostaret Jet. It contains amid nitrogen in the amount of 100 g / l and phosphorus - 300 g / l - in the form of phosphate and phosphite.
For sunflower harvest, sunflower seeds require a large number of nutrients, especially for the cultivation of intensive hybrids, the yield of which reaches 35-45 c / ha. The removal of nutrients is determined by the productivity of the hybrid, the specific soil-climatic, agronomic and organizational conditions. Compared with other field crops, sunflower requires a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus, and it does not have equal levels of potassium. On the formation of 20 c / ha sunflower seeds makes: nitrogen - 80-100 kg / ha, phosphorus - 30-50 kg / ha, potassium - 150-250 kg / ha. All by-products, which contain an average of 50 kg / ha of nitrogen, 25 kg / ha of phosphorus, 180-200 kg / ha of potassium, remain on the field.
In the process of vegetation sunflower absorbs nutrients unevenly: a significant amount of nitrogen and phosphorus - until flowering, when the leaves, stalk and roots are formed, and potassium - almost throughout the entire vegetation, but especially intensively - until flowering.
Elements of mineral nutrition have different effects on plants. For example, nitrogen enhances growth, contributes to the formation of larger plants and baskets. However, excessive nitrogen power prolongs the growing season and adversely affects the accumulation of oil in the seed (since the protein content in the seed increases, and the oil content drops sharply). Under these conditions, the probability of planting and disease (phomopsis, white rot) increases.
Phosphorus contributes to the more powerful development of the root system, the placement of reproductive organs with a large number of embryonic flowers in the basket, so it is important at the initial stages of development - up to 3-4 pairs of true leaves. Due to sufficient phosphorus supply, the development of plants is accelerated, moisture is more efficiently discharged, and therefore they can withstand dry weather and lack of moisture in the soil. Enhanced nutrition with phosphorus dramatically reduces the water consumption of sunflower plants.
It must be remembered that growing sunflower on soils with alkaline reaction of soil solution of assimilation of an important element of the nutrition - phosphorus - is deteriorating. There is still a practice where sunflower crops are fertilized only with nitrogen, and phosphorus and potassium are not introduced. Phosphorus is needed not only to provide energy and growth processes in the plant, but also as an element of the growth of a powerful root, which, under favorable conditions, can reach 3 m deep, which allows you to improve the absorption of not only moisture but also nutrients from the deeper layer of soil. In a dry zone, the application of phosphorus under cultivation is ineffective because the layer on which the fertilizer is placed is rapidly drying out and phosphorus becomes inaccessible; therefore, in this period, liquid starter fertilizers with high phosphorus content are preferred.
deficiency Potassium also negatively affects sunflower plants: the stems become fragile and thin, the content of oil in the seeds decreases, the sunflower harvest decreases, and the content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids changes. On poor potassium soils, plant growth is complicated. Young leaves develop in dense sockets and, eventually, turn into brown dead "shreds". The introduction of appropriate quantities of potassium fertilizers can prevent these problems.
For the provision of plants with high phosphorus plants, the company ECOORGANIC offers a special fertilizer Ecoline Fosfitny (K). Phosphorus in this product is in a phosphite form, the degree of assimilation of which for 24 hours is about 60-70% of the volume. In addition to 530 g / l of phosphorus in the form of phosphite, the product contains potassium - 350 g / l and boron - 14 g / l (this is the highest concentration among all products of this class that is on the market). In addition to the supply of phosphorus and potassium, fertilizer for non-root nutrition Ecoline Fosfit (K) promotes active growth of the root system and has a fungicidal effect on pathogens of fungal diseases. IN In case of manifestation of acute potassium deficiency it is possible to make foliar fertilization Phytostart Potassium from potassium content 300 g / liter in a dose of 3 - 4 l / ha.
Important in the mineral nutrition of this culture belongs to the trace elements that regulate the course of physiological processes in the plant. Significant were the results of monitoring the productivity of photosynthesis of sunflower plants after introducing pre-sowing cultivation of superphosphates enriched with trace elements (Table 1). For the nutrition of microelements on the leaf, this trend persists.
Tab.1 Productivity of photosynthesis, g / (cm2 ∙ day) (Anospok PI 1990)
|Superphosphate||Phase of plant development|
|4 - 5 pairs of leaves||"Asterisk"||Flowering||Start of maturation|
For sunflower seeds There are several critical factors influencing the yield of phases of development: germination of seeds, laying a basket, the beginning of flowering. During germination, plants are sensitive to temperature fluctuations, moisture deficiency, soil herbicide, disease - so, in addition to seed treatment with fungicides and insecticides, it is necessary to add trace elements and biologically active substances. The stock of microelements and biologically active substances on the surface of the seed increases the energy of germination, relieves stress from the influence of external environmental factors and CZR, stimulates the development of the root system and plant in general, increases resistance to disease.
The company "ECOORGANIC " offers for use in pre-sowing treatment of seeds a special fertilizer Gros Coronerist in a dose of 1.5 - 1.8 l / t seeds - separately or in combination with Ecoline Phosphite (K) in a dose of 1.3 - 1.5 l / ton seed.
Efficiency of pre-sowing treatment with fertilizers Gros
Coronerist DepopoliGon LLC "ECOORGANIC", Kyiv oblast, 2016. Accounting 4 weeks after sowing.
Particular attention should be paid to feeding sunflower with boron. The amount of boron in the soil in the amount of 5.0 mg / kg of soil is the limit below which the first symptoms of lack of boron begin to appear. Such symptoms manifest themselves differently in different parts of plants (on leaves, basket) depending on weather conditions and hybrids. The upper leaves quickly become aging, dry, become dark and become brittle. In the basket, these symptoms can also be manifested differently, depending on the level of lack of boron: so, for a severe shortage, the basket completely falls off, as with insect damage.
Bohr plays an important role - from the moment of germination of seeds and further in the process of ontogenesis - in regulating carbohydrate metabolism, the synthesis of amino acids and proteins, chlorophyll, pollination processes at the time of flowering. This element is also important for the development of the root system of sunflower - it improves the outflow of carbohydrates to the root system and activates its growth. Due to the lack of re-mobilization (the ability to move from old fabrics to new ones), the need for sunflower seeds remains high during the entire period of vegetation, especially as it grows at the time of flowering. To provide boron it is better to use fertilizers, in which it is in organic form - boretanolamine. In this form, it is digested much faster and is non-toxic to plants.
For nutrition of plants with sunflower seeds we recommend to use one of the most concentrated and qualitative products in the market - micronutrient Ecoline Bohr (Organic) in a dose of 1.0 - 2.0 l / ha. The best effect is achieved by making half-doses twice. If during the introduction of boron fertilizers the plants are in a state of stress, the company "ECOORGANIC " recommends to introduce a special fertilizer Ecoline Bohr (Premium) at a dose of 1.0 - 2.0 l / ha. In addition to 140 g / L of borreanolamine, this product contains 10 g / L L-α-amino acids, which facilitate the rapid release of the plant from a stressful situation.
On lime, alkaline, sandy soils, digestion of phosphorus, boron, manganese, iron, zinc is impaired, which is a factor limiting the supply of sunflower. Particularly worsened on alkaline and sandy soils ofassimilation manganese. Manganese plays an important role in the cycle of nitrogen assimilation. Due to its lack of nitrate nitrogen in the plant increases, resulting in the processes of growth aboveground mass over the root, plants are extracted and become fragile, susceptible to diseases. To overcome such problems, we recommend usingmicronutrient Ecoline Manganese (Chelat) containing 60 g / L manganese, which is in the form of 100% EDTA chelate.
A very important phase for adjusting the mineral nutrition of sunflower is the phase of formation of 5-8 pairs of true leaves. In this period the future basket is being laid. For unbalanced nutrition, stress basket is laid with fewer flowers, thereby limiting future harvest. In addition, plants that are not provided with sufficient amounts of boron, manganese and zinc, are not able to form seeds of higher weight - so it is important to re-nourish them before the beginning of flowering. Effective during this period will be a non-root nutrition micro-fertilizer Ecoline Oil (Helatas) in a dose of 1.0 - 2.0 l / ha.
Practical experience shows that the system of foliar sunflower oiling is highly effective. Due to this agrostatus you can increase the yield of seeds and increase the oil content in it by 0,2-0,5%.
A very large influence on the formation of sunflower crops is caused by stressful situations caused by adverse weather conditions or by the effect of SZR. In the initial stages of development, phytotoxic action of soil herbicides is often observed, which was washed close to the level of finding seeds, often exacerbated by low temperatures. During this period, we recommend using Ecoline Phosphite (K-Amino) to which, in addition to 250g / l phosphorus in the form of phosphite and 170g / l potassium, includes 70g / l L-α-amino acids. This combination of nutrients and amino acids not only provides additional nutrient uptake with phosphorus and potassium, but also helps the plant to survive the stressful situation with the least losses. Also, to overcome stressful situations and provide sunflower with a complex of trace elements, we recommend using micronutrient EcoLine Universal Rising (Amino) in a dose of 1.0 - 2.0 l / ha. This extra-root fertilizer contains a balanced composition of the trace elements necessary for the proper nutrition of plants (Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu - 100% EDTA chelates) and 75 g / L L-α-amino acids.
Thus, with the help of fertilizers LLC "ECOORGANIC " it is possible to solve the problem of the lack of nutrition elements in all stages of development of sunflower: Gros Coronerist, Ecoline Fosfitny (K) - for pre-sowing seed treatment, Phytostar Jet or Phytosterol Potassium - introduction during sowing, Ecoline Universal Growth (Amino), Ecoline Phosphite (K-Amino), Ecoline Bohr (Premium) - to make in the phase from 2 to 8 pairs of leaves in order to reduce theaftermath of ZZR, Ecoline Bohr (Organic), Gros Quichelium, Ecoline Oliyny (Chelaty) - for providing the necessary elements during the period from the formation of the basket to maturation.