In the 17th century, strawberry appeared on our continent - a fragrant red berry. The path was long, since North America is considered the birthplace. For a long time it was used as an ornamental plant and only in the middle of the 18th century it started to be cultivated as a garden crop.
For the successful cultivation of strawberries, it is necessary to understand the conditions that are required for this.
Strawberries grow very well and bear fruit on black soils, gray forest soils. The best option is light loamy and sandy loamy mechanical compositions that can provide good aeration of the root system and retain a sufficient amount of moisture in the root zone. Strawberries grow well on soils with a slightly acidic soil solution (pH 5.8-6.2).
To obtain high yields, sufficient watering should be provided to the depth of the root system. Even with a significant amount of rainfall, the plant may require additional hydration, especially during flowering, the formation of fruits and crops, and the laying of buds.
As for winter hardiness and frost resistance, it all depends on the variety. In general, plants successfully withstand low temperatures and sufficient snow cover, but if there is no snow, then at temperatures below -12-160С, strawberries partially freeze out or even die completely. However, plants that were provided with the optimal amount of nutrients after harvesting are much better at overwintering. Spring frosts during flowering can damage blooming flowers and even buds still closed. At temperature -1°C, there may be slight damage to the flowers, and at -3°C there may be significant damage. It is worth noting that the complete destruction of the pestle occurs at -10°C, pollen at -5°C. However, as mentioned above, strong plants, which are provided with nutrients, more easily tolerate adverse conditions.
THE MAIN NUTRIENTS FOR STRAWBERRIES:
NITROGEN. This element plays an important role in the life of the plant. Its deficiency leads to growth retardation. It is especially important to provide plants with nitrogen in the first year after planting - this will maximize the potential of the variety. But do not forget that excessive nitrogen nutrition can lead to an active increase in vegetative mass and thickening of plantings, which, in turn, increases the risk of plant damage by diseases and leads to a decrease in crop quality.
PHOSPHORUS. Soluble forms of phosphate fertilizers can be used in soil preparation and before planting the plants into the permanent place. It is very important to provide the plants with phosphorus immediately after planting - this element is responsible for the growth and development of the root system. While the root system of the young plant is weak and undeveloped, it cannot absorb a sufficient amount of phosphorus from the soil, so it is important to use alternative methods of introducing nutrients, such as spraying and drip irrigation.
POTASSIUM. The functions of potassium in the plant body are very diverse. It positively affects the metabolism in cells, as well as increasing the resistance of plants to adverse temperature conditions. With a lack of potassium and increased transpiration, plants lose turgor faster and wilt. Potassium also affects the intensity of photosynthesis, oxidative processes and is involved in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. With a deficiency of this element in the plant, protein synthesis is inhibited, as a result of which the entire nitrogen metabolism is disrupted. Potassium improves frost resistance of plants by increasing the osmotic pressure in the cells.
MAGNESIUM. In a plant, magnesium performs many important functions and is needed in relatively large quantities. Its most important function is the activation of enzymes that catalyze the dephosphorylation process. Magnesium is necessary for the synthesis of proteins, helps balance the ions of potassium and calcium. With magnesium starvation, the appearance of plants changes dramatically: chloroses appear on old leaves, then it eventually passes to younger leaves, and the gradual death of the plant begins. Such processes can intensify under the influence of other stressful conditions - for example, drought, high or low temperatures.
CALCIUM. This element is the building material of the cell. It is located in the cell walls, has a regulatory effect on intracellular processes, the activity of enzymes that are responsible for the maturation process. It participates in the work of hormones that influence on the resistance of plants to various stresses - high or low temperatures, low pH.
BORON. This is one of the most important nutrients for plants. It affects the formation of reproductive organs, enhances pollen germination, increases the number of flowers and pollen, participates in the accumulation of sugars and plastic substances, thereby helping plants to successfully survive during winter. With a critical deficiency of boron, the growth point dies.
To correct the shortage of nutrients and obtain stable crops with high transportability, ECOORGANIC specialists developed recommendations for garden strawberries nutrition:
At the beginning of flowering, fertilizers with a high content of boron and magnesium should be applied - ECOLINE Boron (Organic) 1.0 l/ha and ECOLINE Magnesium (Chelates) 1.5 l/ha. This will enhance the pollination process and activate enzymes that will help the root system absorb phosphorus from the soil.
During filling and ripening, when the integrity and strength of berries is laid, it is worth using ECOLINE Calcium-Boron (Chelates) 2.0 l/ha in combination with ECOLINE Magnesium (Chelates) 1.0 l/ha. This application should be repeated at least 2 times, as it improves transportability and increases the shelf life of fresh berries.
After harvesting, plants should be prepared for the period of dormancy and wintering. ECOLINE Phosphite (K) 2.5 l/ha will help not only to improve the growth of the root system, but also, having a fungiostatic effect, to prevent the development of fungal diseases.